Wednesday, July 21, 2010


Why Study the GDC?

• “… is likely to set the tone for catechesis throughout the universal Church for at least another 25 – 30 years.”
• A major document on catechesis.
• The fruit of a long process of reflection in papal and Church documents since Vatican II.

General Catechetical Directory (GCD) - 1971
• A directory represented a new development in the Church.
• Catechism – a normative document of the deposit of faith (what)
• Directory - provides the orientation, principles and criteria to actualise the deposit of faith (why, how, where, who)
• Developments between Vatican II and the beginning of the new millennium
• Political and social crises, doctrinal inadequacies, influences from global culture and other factors.
• Catechesis has to respond to these developments.

Documents related to Catechesis
• At least 20 major documents since GCD.
• Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA) – 1972
• Evangelii nuntiandi - 1975 on evangelisation (Paul VI) – a decisive milestone for catechesis (GDC, 3-4)
• Catechesi tradendae - 1979 on Catechesis for Our Times (John Paul II)
• Familiaris consortio – 1981 on the Mission of the Family (John Paul II)
• Christifidelis laici - 1987 on the Vocation and Mission of the Laity (John Paul II)
• Redemptoris missio - 1990 on the Vocation and Mission of the Church (John Paul II) (GDC, 5-6)

Catechism of the Catholic Church (1992)
“I declare it to be a sure norm for teaching the faith and thus a valid and legitimate instrument for ecclesial communion”
John Paul II, Apostolic Constitution Fidei Depositum (GDC, 6-7)
General Directory for Catechesis (GDC) - 1997
• to contextualise catechesis within evangelisation as envisaged by Evangelii nuntiandi and other documents
• to appropriate the content of the faith as presented in CCC (GDC, 7)

• Two distinct but complementary instruments at the service of catechesis.
• CCC… is a point of reference for the authentic presentation of the content of faith
• GDC… is the official aid for the transmission of the content and for the whole catechetical activity.

General Directory for Catechesis
• “… aims to provide the fundamental theological and pastoral principles which are intended for a better orientation and coordination of catechesis.”
• … to offer reflections and principles rather than immediate applications or practical directives. (GDC, 9)

• addressed primarily to bishops, episcopal conferences … and those who have responsibility for catechesis.
• to be used in forming those preparing for the priesthood, continuing formation of priests and catechists.
• assist in the composition of catechetical directories and catechisms. (GDC, 11)

Parts of the GDC
Intro The Realities in which the Church Carries out Catechesis
Part 1 Catechesis in the Church’s Mission of Evangelisation
Part 2 The Gospel Message
Part 3 The Pedagogy of the Faith
Part 4 Those to be Catechised
Part 5 Catechesis in the Particular Church

Personal work
• Look through the table of contents.
• Take note of the Parts and Chapters of the GDC.
• Look also at the Thematic Index on page 289.

Traditional GDC
Locus Parish (classroom) Community/ family/ parish/ BEC/ groups/ movements
Content & Method Catechisms;
indoctrination/ instruction Catechism/ Experience 4-ecclesial actions
Goal Preparation for sacraments Relationship with Christ
Agent Priests, religious, catechism teachers Community - parents, bishops, priests/ religious/ catechists
Recipient Children Adults, teenagers, children, aged

Preaching the Gospel in the Contemporary World
• Begins with the Parable of the Sower – a “shift” in the way we approach catechesis.
• The GDC indicates that we begin by examining the realities in the world and in the Church (GDC, 16)

In the world
• Human dignity (justice, peace, human and social development (GDC, 18-19)
• Culture and cultures (advances in science, technology, media) (GDC, 20-21)
• Religious movements and moral values (religious indifference, atheism, secularism, relativism) (GDC, 22-23)

In the Church
• Separation between life and faith.
• “Poor” knowledge of the faith.
• Disinterest in ongoing formation.
• Active in the “world” but fail to give witness to the faith.
(GDC 24 – 28)

Difficulties in Catechesis
• Lack of understanding of nature and tasks of catechesis.
• Emphasis on Scripture at the expense of Tradition.
• Experience at the expense of doctrine.
• The humanity of Jesus at the expense of his divinity.
• Lack of missionary thrust.
• Weak link between liturgy and catechesis.  (GDC, 29-30)

Challenges for Catechesis
• To be at the service of the mission of the Church (Part 1)
• To present the essential mysteries of the faith (Part 2)
• To use the right pedagogy so as to lead to holistic formation (Part 3)
• To focus on all age groups (Part 4)
• To prepare and form of mature catechists (Part 5)

The Place and Role of Catechesis in the Church
• God reveals Himself to humanity (GDC, 36-39)
• Christ - fullness of God’s revelation (GDC, 40-41)
• By the power of the Holy Spirit - the Church transmits God’s revelation through evangelisation (GDC, 42-45)

• The Church “exists in order to evangelise”…
• … “the carrying forth of the Good News to every sector of the human race so that by its strength it may enter into the hearts of men and renew the human race” (GDC, 46)

Ministry of the Word
• A fundamental element of evangelisation is the Ministry of the Word.
• The Ministry of the Word transmits God’s Revelation, through the Church, using human words. (GDC, 50)

Catechesis in the process of evangelisation
• Evangelisation comprises different ‘essential moments’• Catechesis is one of these moments – a very remarkable one - in the process of evangelisation. (GDC, 63-64)
• Initiatory Catechesis
• Ongoing formation
• Religious Instruction in schools
• Family Catechesis

Nature of catechesis
• Catechesis is an ecclesial act (GDC, 78)
• … is nothing other than the process of transmitting the Gospel, as Christian community has received it, understands it, celebrates it, lives it and communicates it in many ways”

Object of catechesis
The definitive aim of catechesis is “to put people not only in touch but also in communion and intimacy with Jesus Christ” (GDC, 80)

Tasks of Catechesis
• Promoting knowledge of faith.
• Moral formation.
• Liturgical education.
• Teaching to pray.
• Education into community life.
• Missionary initiation.
• All these tasks are necessary – each helps to realise the objective of catechesis.
• When catechesis omits one of these elements, the Christian faith does not attain full development.
• Together, they help transformation at the cognitive, social, moral, spiritual and emotional levels.

4 ecclesial actions of the Church
• Catechesis (Ministry of the Word)
• Liturgical celebrations (Ministry of Worship)
• Building communion (Ministry of Fellowship)
• Service (Ministry of Service)

Catechesis in the particular Church
• The proclamation, transmission and lived experience of the Gospel is realised most concretely in the particular Church (GDC, 217)
• In the particular Church, catechesis occupies “a position of importance” (GDC, 219)

Study and Respond
• GDC 265-269 (Organisations)
• GDC 248-250 (schools and institutes)
• To what extent are our diocesan offices currently exercising the competencies stated in the GDC? Which areas need to be improved? Why?

Responsibility for Catechesis
• Catechesis is the responsibility of the whole community (GDC, 219)
• Bishops (GDC, 222-223)
• Priests, pastors and educators (GDC, 224)
• Parents (GDC, 226)
• Religious (GDC, 228)
• Lay catechists (GDC, 230)

Formation of catechists
• Diocesan pastoral programmes must give absolute priority to the formation of catechists
• The instruments provided for catechists cannot be truly effective unless well used by trained catechists (GDC, 234)

Purpose of Formation
• To make the catechist capable of communicating the Gospel message.
• To lead the catechist to a closer communion with Jesus Christ.
• To help catechist enter into the aspirations of the Church to transmit the Gospel.

Dimensions (GDC, 238)
• Being (GDC, 239)
• Knowing (GDC, 240-243)
• Savoir-faire (GDC, 244-245)

Study and Prepare
• The GDC has proposed several fundamental principles for the formation of catechists.
• Read GDC, 238-245.
• Prepare a formation programme for new catechists that would consists of 10 sessions (2 hours each). Discuss which topics you would choose. Why?




TAHAP 1 :Allah Mengasihi Kita :RM 6.00
LEVEL 1: God Loves Us              :RM 15.00

TAHAP 2: Allah Memberi Kita Anak-Nya  : RM 7.00
LEVEL 2 :  God Gives us His Son               : RM 15.00

TAHAP 3: Allah Memberi Hidup-Nya kepada Kita : RM 10.00
LEVEL 3: God Gives Us His Life                             : RM 16.00

TAHAP 4 : Allah Memberikan Kita Kegembiraan  :RM 10.00
LEVEL 4 : God Gives Us Joy                                :RM 16.00 

TAHAP 5 :Allah Memanggil Kita Menjadi Kudus :RM 10.00 
LEVEL 5 : God Calls Us to be Holy                     :RM16.00

TAHAP 6: Allah Membentuk Umat-Nya :RM 10.00
LEVEL 6: God Forms His People           :RM 16.00 

TAHAP 7: Allah Menyelamatkan Umat-Nya : RM 10.00
LEVEL 7 God Saves His People                   : RM 18.00 

TAHAP 8 Allah Menyertai Kita :RM 10.00
LEVEL 8 God Is with Us           :RM 18.00

TAHAP 9 Allah Memberi Kita Gereja :RM 10.00
LEVEL 9 God Gives Us His Church    :RM 19.00

TAHAP 10 : Roh Kudus Menguasakan Kita : RM10.00
LEVEL 10 : God’s Spirit Empower Us            : RM 19.00

Semua buku-buku ini boleh didapati di CATHOLIC SERVICE CENTRE (CSC), Lrg. Hiburan, Jalan Penampang, P.O. Box 10225, 88802 KOTA KINABALU-Attn. Agatha.
Tel: 088-712416/723973
Time: 08.00 am-12.00noon; 02.00pm-05.00pm
Catechist's Guide (English) boleh juga didapati di Pejabat Komisi Kateketikal Keuskupan K.K.

Perhatian: Buku Pelajar tahap 4 sedang dalam proses pencetakan  yang memerlukan masa selama sebulan. Untuk keterangan lanjut, sila berhubung dengan pihak CSC.

General Instruction of the Roman Missal (3rd typical edition 2002): (to foster full, active and fruitful participation in the liturgy)

Some notable Changes to current practices

1. General Arrangement, Environment, Norms:
Floral decoration: never too much, around rather than on altar

Candles: There shall be at least 2, 4 or even 6 on Sundays and Feast Days, 7 when the Bishop of the Diocese is presiding; nothing is mentioned about oil lamps as substitutes for candles.

Incensation: used for Entrance Procession, mostly 3 swings of the thurible for bishop, priest, or people, crucifix, Book of Gospels, gifts of bread and wine, consecrated bread and wine, single swings for altar).

Money and other gifts brought up at the Presentation are to be placed away from the altar in another suitable place.

Ambo: Not only for scriptural readings, but also Responsorial Psalm, intercessions of the Prayer of the Faithful.

Concelebration: Priests are not allowed to join in a concelebration if late and must not leave before the conclusion.

2. Mass Texts, Hymns, Silences & Pauses:

Mass texts: The exact Mass text of the following must be used whether sung or recited: Responsorial psalms, Gospel Acclamation Verse, Gloria, Sanctus, Agnus Dei; the entrance/offertory/communion chants texts and only Conference-approved-substitute hymns may be used; Communion Chant begins at the priest’s communion.

Pauses and Silences are now imposed: In and around the church before celebration; before the Penitential Rite, after Opening Prayer “Let us pray”; before Liturgy of the Word; before and after scriptural readings; after the homily; after communion; after Post Communion “Let us pray” when not preceded by silence after Communion.

3. Common Postures, Gestures, Movements:

Dancing is not provided for anywhere during Mass;

Bowing: Priest and people make a profound bow at “by the power of the Holy Spirit … and became man” in the Creed; Simple / bow of the head to be made when the three Divine Persons are named together and at the names of Jesus, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and of the Saint in whose honor Mass is being celebrated; at Communion each communicant is to make a profound bow as he/she approaches to receive the Body of Christ.

Priest/deacon no longer raises and shows Book of Gospels after the reading.

The people sit at Presentation of the Gifts (this is not new – to stand was introduced by some dioceses in the Region).

Genuflection: Priest must genuflect after raising the Body and Blood of Christ at the Consecration (not just bow), and also before the “Behold the Lamb of God; People must bow profoundly when the priest genuflects at Consecration if for physical reason they cannot kneel.

Lord’s Prayer: nothing is said about the gesture of the people (raising or extending of hands or holding of hands are certainly not obligatory);

Sign of Peace given only to those nearest (not to move around to avoid distraction) in a sober manner (no provision for song during sign of peace), the priest not to leave sanctuary to offer the sign of peace unless for a serious reason;

Extraordinary Ministers of Communion to approach altar only after the priest’s communion, they are to receive communion and the ciborium from the hands of the priest; priest himself is expected to take and return the blessed sacrament to the tabernacle should there be real need for extra consecrated hosts;

Communion from the same Eucharist: People are to receive communion consecrated at the same Eucharist, and not from the tabernacle reserve.

Announcements: When these are truly necessary, the priest is to make them.

4. Blessing of non Communicants:

Until further notice, after some consultation on the thorny issue, Archbishop Lee has decided that blessing of non communicants at communion is to be given only to children who come together with their parents/guardians. Adults for whatever reason who may not receive communion, are not to be blessed.

Pedoman Umum Misale Romawi (edisi k-3 2002):
(memupuk penglibatan secara sedar, aktif dan penuh di dalam liturgi)

Beberapa perubahan kepada amalan-amalan kini

1. Perhiasan, Ruang, Ketetapan Umum:
Perhiasan bunga: sederhana, di sekitar dan bukan di atas altar
Lilin: Sekurang-kurangnya 2, 4 atau 6 pada hari Minggu dan hari-hari Wajib, 7 apabila Uksup Diosis merayakan Misa; tiada disebut mengenai minyak menggantikan lilin.
Pendupaan: digunakan semasa Perarakan Masuk, kebanyakannya 3 hayunan untuk uskup, paderi atau umat, salib, Kitab Injil, persembahan roti dan anggur, roti dan anggur yang dikonsekrasikan, satu hayunan untuk altar.
Wang dan lain-lain bahan persembahan: yang dibawa semasa Persembahan diletakkan di tempat lain yang sesuai dan bukan di altar.
Ambo/Mimbar: bukan hanya untuk bacaan kitab suci, juga untuk Mazmur Antarabacaan, permohonan Doa Umat.
Konselebrasi: Para paderi tidak dibenarkan untuk menyertai Misa konselebrasi jika lambat dan tidak seharusnya tinggalkan gereja sebelum pengutusan.

2. Teks dan Lagu Misa, Saat Hening:
Teks Misa: Teks Misa berikut yang bertepatan harus digunakan samada dilagukan atau diucap: Mazmur antarabacaan, Bait Pengantar Injil, Kemuliaan/Gloria, Kudus kudus, Anak Domba Allah; teks nyanyian pembuka/persembahan/komuni dan lagu-lagu yang diluluskan oleh Konferens boleh digunakan; Lagu Komuni bermula semasa komuni paderi.

Saat hening kini dimestikan: di dalam dan di sekitar gereja sebelum perayaan; sebelum Upacara Tobat, selepas Doa Pembuka ”Marilah berdoa”; sebelum Liturgi Sabda; sebelum dan selepas bacaan kitab suci; selepas homili; selepas komuni; selepas Doa komuni ”Marilah berdoa” apabila tidak didahului oleh hening selepas Komuni.

3. Sikap Tubuh dan Tata Gerak Umum:

Tarian tidak dinyatakan untuk mana-mana bahagian Misa;
Bungkuk/Tunduk: Paderi dan umat membungkuk khidmat semasa Syahadat ”dikandung dari Roh Kudus...menjadi manusia”; Tunduk kepala dibuat semasa tiga peribadi Tritunggal disebutkan bersama dan pada nama Yesus, Perawan Maria, dan Santo yang dirayakan Misa peringatan; semasa Komuni setiap umat yang datang meyambut dihendaki membungkuk khidmat sebelum menerima Tubuh Kristus.
Paderi/diakon tidak lagi mengangkat dan menunjukkan Kitab Injil selepas membacanya.
Umat duduk semasa Perarakan Persembahan (ini bukan sesuatu yang baru – berdiri diperkenalkan oleh beberapa diosis di Konferens ini).
Genuflek (berlutut dengan satu lutut): Paderi harus genuflek selepas mengangkat Tubuh dan Darah Kristus semasa Konsekrasi (bukan hanya membungkuk), dan juga sebelum ”Inilah Anak Domba Allah”; Jika semasa Konsekrasi umat tidak dapat berlutut disebabkan oleh keadaan fisikal, apabila paderi genuflek mereka harus membungkuk khidmat.
Doa Bapa Kami: tidak disebutkan tata gerak umat (tidak semestinya untuk mengangkat atau membuka tangan atau memegang tangan yang lain);
Salam Damai diberi kepada mereka yang berdekatan sahaja (tidak bergerak dan menyebabkan gangguan) dengan pantas (tiada lagu yang mengiringi upacara ini), kecuali atas sebab-sebab yang serius, paderi tidak meninggalkan kawasan altar untuk memberi salam damai;
Pelayan Komuni Tak-Lazim datang ke altar hanya selepas komuni paderi, mereka menerima komuni dan siboria berisi hostia suci dari tangan paderi; paderi sendiri yang akan mengambil dan mengembalikan sakramen kudus ke dalam tabernakel jika hostia-hostia tambahan diperlukan;
Menyambut komuni dari Ekaristi yang sama: Umat menerima komuni yang dikonsekrasikan dari Ekaristi yang sama, dan bukan dari hostia-hostia tambahan di dalam tabernakel.
Pengumuman: Jika perlu, disampaikan oleh paderi.

4. Pemberkatan mereka yang belum boleh menyambut:

Setelah konsultasi dan sehingga diberitahu kelak, Uksup Agung Lee telah membuat keputusan pemberkatan mereka yang belum boleh menyambut hanya diberi kepada kanak-kanak yang keluar bersama-sama dengan ibubapa/penjaga mereka sahaja. Dewasa, biarpun apa jua sebab mereka tidak dapat menerima komuni, tidak akan diberkati.




Kesaksian Iman yang Tak Berubah
Kelangsungan Tradisi yang Tak Terputus
Penyesuaian dengan Keadaan Baru



I. Susunan Urnum Misa

II. Aneka Unsur Misa

Pewartaan dan Penjabaran Sabda Allah
Doa dan Tugas-tugas Imam Lainnya
Rumus-rumus Lain dalam Perayaan
Cara Membawakan Aneka Teks
Makna Nyanyian
Tata Gerak dan Sikap Tubuh
Saat Hening

III. Bagian.-bagian Misa
A Ritus Pembuka
Perarakan Masuk
Penghormatan Altar dan Salam kepada Umat
Pernyataan Tobat
Tuhan Kasihanilah
Doa Pembuka

B. Liturgi Sabda
Saat Hening
Bacaan-bacaan dan Alkitab
Mazmur Tanggapan
Bait Pengantar Injil
Pernyataan Iman
Doa Umat

C. Liturgi Ekaristi
Persiapan Persembahan
Doa Persiapan Persembahan
Doa Syukur Agung
Ritus Komuni
Bapa Kami
Ritus Damai
Pemecahan Roti Komuni

D. Ritus Penutup

I. Tugas-tugas Pelayan Tertahbis
II. Tugas-tugas Umat Allah
III. Pelayanan-pelayanan Khusus Pelayanan Akolit dan Lektor yang Dilantik
Tugas-tugas Lain
IV. Pembagian Tugas dan Persiapan Perayaan

Hal-hal yang harus Disiapkan
A. Misa Urnat Tanpa Diakon
Ritus Pembuka
Liturgi Sabda
Liturgi Ekaristi
Ritus Penutup
B. Misa Umat dengan Diakon
Ritus Pembuka
Liturgi Sabda
Liturgi Ekaristi
Ritus Penutup

C. Tugas Akolit
Ritus Pembuka
Liturgi Ekaristi

D. Tugas Lektor
Ritus Pembuka
Liturgi Sabda

Ritus Pembuka
Liturgi Sabda
Liturgi Ekaristi
Cara Membawakan Doa Syukur Agung

A. Doa Syukur Agung I atau Kanon Romawi
B. Doa Syukur Agung II
C. Doa Syukur Agung III
D. Doa Syukur Agung IV

Ritus Komuni
Ritus Penutup

Ritus Pembuka
Liturgi Sabda
Liturgi Ekaristi
Ritus Penutup

Penghormatan Altar dan Kitab Injil (Evangeliarium)
Berlutut dan Membungkuk
Penggunaan Dupa
Pembersihan Bejana-bejana

I. Asas-asas Umum
II. Penataan Panti Imam untuk Perayaan Kudus
Altar dan Hiasannya
Kursi Imam Selebran dan Para Pelayan Lain

III. Penataan Ruang Lain dalam Gereja
Tempat Umat Beriman
Tempat Paduan Suara dan Alat Musik
Tempat Tabernakel
Patung Kudus

I. Roti dan Anggur
II. Perabot ibadat pada Umumnya
III. Bejana Kudus
IV. Busana Liturgis
V. Hal-hal Lain

I. Pemilihan Rumus Misa
II. Pemilihan Bagian-bagian Misa
Pemilihan Bacaan
Pemilihan Doa
Pemilihan Doa Syukur Agung
Pemilihan Nyanyian

I. Misa dan Doa untuk Pelbagai Kesempatan
II. Misa Arwah




AAS: Acta Apostolicue Sedis, Terbitan resmi Takhta Apostolik yang memuat dan mengumumkan dokumen-dokumen Gereja.
BU: Buku Umat
CD: Christus Dominus, Dekrit tentang Tugas Kegembalaan para Uskup
D: Diakon
DS: Denzinger Sclzonn,etzer, Kumpulan Definisi dan Pernyataan Gereja mengenai ajaran iman dan moral.
DV: Del Verbum, Konstitusi Dogmatik tentang Wahyu Ilahi.
I: Imam
IML: Instruksi tentang Musik di dalam Liturgi (Musicam Sacram-MS). (Bina Liturgia 2B, hlm. 107)
IPI.: Instruksi Pelaksana I Konstitusi Liturgi (Inter Oecumenici IOe (Bina Liturgia 2A, him. 51).
1P2: Instruksi Pelaksana II Konstit-usj Liturgi (Tresabhincannos). (Bina Liturgia 2A, hlm.67).
1P3: Instruksi Pelaksana III Konstitusi Liturgi (Liturgicae InstaurationesLl) (Bina Liturgia 2A, him. 71).
KL: Konstitusi Liturgi (Sacrosanctum Concilium-SC) (Bina Liturgia 2A, hlm.7)
L: Lektor / pembaca
LG: Lumen Genhum, Konstitusi Dogmatik tentang Gereja.
MI: Misteri Ekaristi (Eucharisticum Mysterium), Instruksi Kongregasi Ritus tentang Kebaktian Ekaristi (Bina Liturgia Constitutio Apostolica “Missale Romanum” 2D).
PL: Patres Latini, Kumpulan tulisan para Bapa/ Pengarang Gereja yang berbahasa Latin.
PO: Presbyterorum Ordinis, Dekrit tentang Pendidikan Imam.
PUMR: Pedoman Umum Misale Romawi (Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani - IMGR), Piagam Umum Mengenai Tata Perayaan Ekaristi Menurut Misale Romawi.
SBL: Seri Bina Liturgia, Bunga Rampai Liturgi (Komisi Liturgi KWI & OBOR).
Sda.: Sama dengan di atas.
UR: Unitatis Redintegratio, Dekrit tentang Ekumene.
U: Umat
Singkatan untuk konselebrasi (dicetak pada margin kanan)
S: Selebran utama
S1: Konselebrean 1
S2: Konselebran 2
S3: Konselebran 3
S4: Konselebran 4
SS: Semua Selebran: selebran utama dan para konselebran
Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani
1. Ketika Kristus, Tuhan kita, hendak merayakan perjamuan paskah bersama murid-murid-Nya, untuk menetapkan korban Tubuh dan Darah-Nya, Ia menyuruh para murid menyiapkan ruang perjamuan yang luas, lengkap dengan pembaringan-pembaringan (Luk 22:12). Gereja selalu berpendapat bahawa perintah Yesus itu berlaku juga untuk dirinya. Maka dari tu, Gereja selalu mengatur perayaan Ekaristi Mahakudus dan memberikan pedoman tentang sikap batin, tata ruang, tata perayaan, dan rumus teks yang diperlukan untuk perayaan Ekaristi. Demikian juga pada zaman ini kita mengalami sekali lagi bagaimana Gereja, dengan iman dan cinta yang setia terhadap misteri Ekaristi yang mahaagung, menunaikan tanggung jawab ini. Hal ini kita lihat dalam pedoman yang diberikan atas mandat Konsili Vatikan II, serta dalam Misale (= Missale, Buku Misa) baru yang mulai sekarang digunakan dalam Gereja Latin untuk perayaan Ekaristi. Di sini tampak pula kelangsungan tradisi, meskipun ada hal-hal yang diperbaharui.
Kesaksian Iman yang Tak Berubah

2. Konsili Trente sudah menandaskan secara sungguh-sungguh, bahawa sedari hakikatnya Misa adalah korban; hal ini memang sesuai dengan tradisi Gereja universal. Ajaran ini ditegaskan kembali oleh Konsili Vatikan II yang mengutarakan kata-kata mutiara tentang Misa sebagai berikut: “Dalam perjamuan malam terakhir, ketika akan diserahkan, Juruselamat kita mengadakan korban Ekaristi Tubuh dan Darah-Nya. Dalam korban ini Ia mengabadikan korban salib untuk selama-lamanya sampai Ia datang kembali. Di sini kepada Gereja, mempelai-Nya yang terkasih, Ia mempercayakan kenangan akan wafat dan kebangkitan-Nya.”

Ajaran Konsili ini senantiasa diungkapkan pula dalam rumus-rumus Misa. Misalnya saja ajaran yang secara singkat padat tertera dalam buku Sacramentarium Leonianum: “Setiap kali kenangan akan korban ini dirayakan, karya penebusan kita terlaksana.” Keyakinan ini dijabarkan secara cermat dan tepat dalam Doa-Doa Syukur Agung. Sebab bila dalam Doa Syukur Agung imam melakukan pengenangan (anamnesis), ia menghadap Allah, juga atas nama seluruh umat, bersyukur kepada-Nya dan mempersembahkan korban yang hidup dan suci, yang merupakan persembahan Gereja sebagai korban sejati, yakni Putera-Nya sendiri, yang berkat kematian-Nya telah mendamaikan kita dengan Allah. Imam pun berdoa agar Tubuh dan Darah Kristus menjadi korban yang berkenan pada Allah dan membawa keselamatan bagi seluruh dunia.

Dengan demikian, dalam Misale baru, tata doa (lex orandi) Gereja sesuai dengan tata iman (lex credendi) yang abadi. Sebab menurut iman Gereja kita diajar, bahawa antara korban salib dan pengulangannya secara sakramental dalam Misa tidak ada perbezaan. Perbezaannya terletak hanya dalam cara pengorbanannya. Jadi korban salib dan korban Misa itu satu dan sama, yakni korban yang dipersembahkan dan diwariskan oleh Kristus Tuhan pada perjamuan malam terakhir. Ini diperintahkan kepada para rasul, supaya dilakukan sebagai kenangan akan Dia. Maka Misa itu sekaligus merupakan korban pujian dan syukur, korban pendamai dan pelunas.

3. Selanjutnya, diajarkan oleh Konsili Trente, bahawa dalam Misa Tuhan sungguh-sungguh hadir dalam rupa roti dan anggur. Ajaran iman tentang misteri agung ini ditandaskan pula oleh Konsili Vatikan II dan oleh dokumen pengajaran Gereja lainnya tanpa mengubah apa-apa. Kenyataan mi diungkapkan dalam perayaan Misa, bukan hanya dalam kata-kata konsekrasi, yaitu pada saat roti dan anggur berubah menjadi Tubuh dan Darah Kristus, melainkan juga dalam sikap khidmat dan tanda-tanda penghormatan serta penyembahan yang ditunjukkan dalam perayaan ekaristis. Dan sebab itu, pada Hari Khamis Putih dan pada Hari Raya Tubuh dan Darah Kristus, umat kristian diajak menghormati Sakramen agung ini secara istimewa.

4. Hakikat-pelayanan imamat tampak jelas dalam perayaan Ekaristi, iaitu dalam tempat dan tugas yang khusus diperuntukkan bagi imam. Pelayanan itu dipercayakan kepada imam, yang selaku peribadi Kristus mempersembahkan korban dan memimpin umat beriman yang berhimpun. Tugas khusus imam itu diuraikan dengan jelas dalam prefasi Misa Krisma pada hari Khamis dalam Pekan Suci. Sebab pada hari itu diperingati penetapan imamat. Dalam prefasi itu digambarkan, bahawa kuasa imamat itu diserahkan dengan penumpangan tangan. Di situ disebutkan juga tugas-tugas imam, sehingga menjadi jelas, bahawa dalam pelayanan imamat, Kristus melangsungkan kuasa-Nya sendiri sebagai imam agung Perjanjian Baru.

5. Akan tetapi, hakikat-pelayanan imamat ini terwujud juga dalam bentuk lain, iaitu imamat rajawi umat beriman. Erti imamat umat beriman ini akan menjadi jelas dalam cahaya imamat jabatan. Sebab inti imamat umat ialah bahawa umat beriman mempersembahkan korban rohani yang terlaksana ‘melalui jabatan para imam dalam persatuan dengan korban Kristus, satu-satunya pengantara. Perayaan Ekaristi merupakan tindakan seluruh Gereja. Dalam perayaan itu hendaknya setiap orang melakukan tugas masing-masing, tidak kurang dan tidak lebih, menurut kedudukannya dalam umat Allah. Maka dari itu beberapa segi dalam perayaan Ekaristi yang pada abad-abad yang lalu kadang-kadang kurang diperhatikan, sekarang mendapat perhatian lebih banyak: Umat Allah yang ditebus dengan Darah Kristus adalah umat yang dihimpun oleh Tuhan dan dipuaskan dengan sabdaNya. Mereka itulah umat yang dipanggil untuk memanjatkan permohonan seluruh umat manusia kepada Allah. Mereka itulah umat yang mempersembahkan korban Kristus sambil bersyukur atas misteri keselamatannya dalam Kristus. Akhirnya, mereka itu jugalah umat yang tumbuh menjadi satu kerana persekutuan dengan Tubuh dan Darah Kristus. Umat ini pada dasarnya memang umat kudus, namun mereka harus tumbuh terus-menerus dalam kekudusan dengan berpartisipasi secara sedar, aktif, dan penuh makna dalam misteri Ekaristi.

Kelangsungan Tradisi yang Tak Terputus

6. Konsili Vatikan II mengamanatkan agar Tata Perayaan Ekaristi ditinjau kembali. Antara lain dituntut, agar beberapa bahagian dalam perayaan itu dipulihkan “selaras dengan tradisi kuno para Bapa suci.” Kata-kata ini juga dipergunakan oleh S. Pius V, ketika beliau pada tahun 1570 mengumumkan Misale Trente dalam Konstitusi Apostolik “Quo primum”. Kata-kata itu menunjukkan, bahawa kedua Misale Romawi tersebut mengandung tradisi yang sama, meskipun berselang empat abad. Bila tradisi itu direnungkan dengan lebih mendalam, maka jelaslah bagaimana Misale yang pertama itu disempurnakan oleh Misale yang sekarang ini.

7. Zaman empat abad yang lalu itu merupakan zaman yang sangat sulit. Bahaya besar mengancam kepercayaan katolik terhadap nilai Misa sebagai korban, nilai imamat jabatan, dan nilai kehadiran Kristus secara nyata dan lestari dalam lambang Ekaristi. Maka dari itu, S. Pius V sangat berminat, agar tradisi iman asli yang diserang dengan tidak semena-mena itu, dipertahankan tanpa mengadakan banyak perubahan dalam perayaan suci. Memang, Misale 1570 itu hampir tidak berbeza dengan Misale sebelumnya, terbitan tahun 1474. Misale itu pun mengikuti dengan setia Misale dan zaman Paus Innocentius III. Lagi pula, berdasarkan naskah yang terdapat dalam perpustakaan Vatikan, memang diadakan beberapa perbaikan teks dalam Misale Pius V. Namun naskah-naskah itu tidak memungkinkan bahawa penyelidikan terhadap “pengarang-pengarang kuno dan ternama” waktu itu menghasilkan sesuatu yang melampaui komentar-komentar liturgi dari abad pertengahan.

8. Sebaliknya, dewasa ini, “tradisi para Bapa suci” yang dicita-citakan oleh penyusun Misale Pius V itu, telah diketemukan berkat tulisan para sarjana yang tak terbilang banyaknya. Sebab pada tahun 1571 untuk pertama kalinya diterbitkan Sacramentarium Gregorianum. Kemudian berulang kali dicetak juga edisi kritis Sacramentarium Romanum dan Ambrosianum. Juga diterbitkan buku-buku liturgi kuno dan Hispania dan Gallia yang memuat amat banyak doa dengan nilai rohani yang tinggi, yang sampai zaman Trente belum diketahui.

Lagi pula, tradisi abad-abad pertama, iaitu tradisi sebelum terbentuknya Ritus Timur dan Ritus Barat, telah dikenal dengan lebih baik pada zaman kita, kerana begitu banyak dokumen liturgi yang diketemukan.

Di samping itu, kerana kemajuan ilmu patristik, teologi tentang misteri Ekaristi mengalami pengaruh dan ajaran para bapa Gereja, terutama bapa-bapa yang terkenal pada zaman kuno, seperti S. Ireneus, S. Ambrosius, S. Sirilus dari Yerusalem, dan S. Yohanes Krisostomus.

9. Dari sebab itu, mengikuti “tradisi para Bapa suci” tidak bererti bahawa asal apa yang diwariskan para leluhur yang paling dekat dengan kita itu dipelihara, tetapi juga bahawa seluruh sejarah Gereja ditinjau dan dipertimbangkan, termasuk semua cara dan bentuk ibadat yang pernah dipakai untuk mengungkapkan iman yang satu dan sama, kendati bentuk-bentuk ibadat begitu berbeza satu sama lain kerana terdapat di daerah-daerah Semit, Yunani, dan Latin. Tinjauan yang lebih luas dan mendalam ini menyedarkan kita bagaimana Roh Kudus menganugerahkan kesetiaan yang luar biasa kepada umat Allah untuk menjaga harta warisan iman yang tak berubah, meskipun doa dan ritus masing-masing begitu berbeza.

Penyesuaian dengan Keadaan Baru

10. Jadi, Misale baru ini memberikan kesaksian tentang adanya tata doa Gereja Roma dan memelihara harta warisan iman yang diwartakan oleh konsili-konsili yang terakhir. Akan tetapi, di samping itu, Misale baru ini merupakan suatu tahap penting dalam perkembangan liturgi.

Para bapa Konsili Vatikan II memang mengulangi rumusan-rumusan dogmatik Trente, namun mereka berbicara pada zaman yang telah sangat berubah. Maka dari itu, mereka dapat mengemukakan saran dan petunjuk di bidang pastoral yang empat abad yang lalu tidak terfikirkan.

11. Konsili Trente sudah menjunjung tinggi segi kateketis dalam perayaan Ekaristi. Meskipun demikian, Trente belum dapat menarik segala konsekuensi yang praktis. Misalnya pada waktu itu banyak orang menuntut agar dalam korban Misa boleh digunakan bahasa umat setempat. Namun kerana tuntutan situasi Gereja pada zaman itu, Konsili Trente merasa wajib untuk menegaskan kembali ajaran Gereja, bahawa korban Misa itu pertama-tama adalah tindakan Kristus sendiri, sehingga hasil Misa yang sesungguhnya tidak tergantung dan partisipasi umat beriman. lni dirumuskan sebagai berikut: “Meskipun Misa mengandung banyak pengajaran untuk umat, namun tidak disetujui oleh Konsili, bahawa Misa dirayakan dalam bahasa umat setempat.” Bahkan dianggap terkutuklah siapa saja yang “menolak kebiasaan dalam Gereja Roma untuk mengucapkan Kanon dan kata-kata konsekrasi dengan suara lembut, atau yang berpendapat bahawa Misa harus dirayakan dalam bahasa umat setempat.” Akan tetapi, kalau di satu pihak dilarang menggunakan bahasa umat setempat, maka di lain pihak para pastor diperintahkan untuk mengimbangi kekurangan itu dengan katekesis yang sesuai: “Supaya domba-domba Kristus jangan sampai kelaparan maka Konsili memerintahkan para gembala umat beriman dan semua yang bertanggung jawab atas umat beriman, agar dalam Misa, mereka sendiri atau lewat orang lain, menjelaskan teks-teks yang dibacakan, dan menguraikan misteri korban mahakudus ini, lebih-lebih pada hari-hari Minggu dan pesta.”

12. Konsili Vatikan II berhimpun dengan maksud untuk menyesuaikan Gereja dengan tuntutan tugas kerasulannya pada zaman ini. Maka dari itu, Konsili Vatikan II, seperti halnya Konsili Trente, sungguh-sungguh menyedari segi kateketis dan pastoral dalam liturgi. Jadi, meskipun setiap orang katolik tahu bahawa liturgi dalam bahasa Latin itu sah dan bermanfaat, namun diakui juga bahawa “pemakaian bahasa umat setempat seringkali berguna bagi umat,” sehingga penggunaan bahasa umat setempat diizinkan. Izin ini di mana-mana disambut dengan begitu gembira, sehingga, di bawah bimbingan para uskup dan Takhta Apostolik sendiri, dewasa ini semua perayaan liturgi yang dihadiri umat boleh diselenggarakan dalam bahasa umat setempat, agar dengan demikian misteri yang dirayakan, difahami dengan lebih jelas.

13. Penggunaan bahasa umat setempat dalam liturgi, betapapun pentingnya, hanyalah merupakan alat, iaitu untuk mengungkapkan dengan jelas dan secara kateketis misteri yang dirayakan. Maka dari itu, Konsili Vatikan II menegaskan kembali beberapa keputusan Trente yang belum ditaati di semua tempat. Misalnya saja diharuskan adanya homili pada hari-hari Minggu dan pesta, dan diizinkan agar di antara ritus-ritus kudus disisipkan penjelasan-penjelasan singkat.

Terutama satu harapan, yang juga dikemukakan oleh bapa-bapa dalam konsili Trente, telah dilaksanakan oleh Konsili Vatikan II, iaitu, agar umat beriman berpartisipasi dalam Misa dengan lebih sempurna dan “tidak hanya berkomuni secara rohani, tetapi juga secara sakramental.” Mengenai hal ini dinasihatkan oleh Konsili Vatikan II, “agar umat beriman berpartisipasi lebih sempurna di dalam Ekaristi, yakni: sesudah imam menyambut Tubuh dan Darah Tuhan, umat beriman pun hendaknya ikut menyambut dari korban yang sama.”

14. Terdorong oleh semangat pastoral yang sama, Konsili Vatikan II telah berhasil meninjau kembali penetapan Konsili Trente tentang komuni-dua-rupa. Sebab dewasa ini tidak dipersoalkan lagi ajaran bahawa komuni-roti saja sudah merupakan komuni penuh. Namun Konsili mengizinkan komuni-dua-rupa pada kesempatan-kesempatan tertentu, supaya dengan demikian lambang sakramen menjadi tampak lebih jelas dan misteri Ekaristi difahami secara lebih mendalam oleh umat beriman yang merayakannya.

15. Dengan demikian, sebagai pengajar kebenaran Gereja tetap setia dalam tugasnya untuk menjaga “yang lama”, yakni harta warisan tradisi; sekaligus Gereja menunaikan tugas lainnya, yakni mempertimbangkan dan mempergunakan “yang baru” dengan bijaksana (bdk. Mat 13:52).

Sebahagian dari Misale Romawi baru itu lebih mengarahkan doa-doa Gereja kepada keperluan zaman kita. Hal ini berlaku terutama dalam Misa-Misa Ritual dan Misa untuk Pelbagai Keperluan dan Kesempatan. Dalam rumus-rumus itu secara indah yang lama dipadukan dengan yang barn. Maka di samping banyak rumus diambil alih secara utuh dan warisan Gereja yang sangat kuno, sebagaimana terbukti juga dalam terbitan-terbitan Misale Romawi sebelumnya, ada rumusan-rumusan lain yang disesuaikan dengan keadaan zaman sekarang. Ada lagi yang diciptakan baru, sering dengan meminjam fikiran dan perkataan dari dokumen-dokumen Konsili yang lalu; misalnya doa-doa untuk Gereja, doa untuk kaum awam, doa untuk menguduskan pekerjaan, doa untuk keluarga semua bangsa dan untuk pelbagai keperluan khas zaman kita.

Gereja kini sangat terbuka terhadap dunia dan menyedari kedudukan dunia secara baru. Maka sudah sewajarnyalah bila dalam menggunakan rumus-rumus dan tradisi yang sangat kuno, kalimat-kalimatnya kadang kala diubah, supaya lebih sesuai dengan bahasa teologi moden serta lebih tepat mencerminkan sikap Gereja masa kini. Misalnya saja sejumlah teks yang mengandung penilaian tentang harta dunia dan berkaitan dengan pemakaiannya telah diubah; demikian pula ungkapan-ungkapan mengenai tata cara tobat yang berasal dan zaman lain dalam sejarah Gereja.

Dengan demikian kaedah-kaedah liturgi Konsili Trente dalam beberapa hal telah dilengkapi dan disempurnakan oleh kaedah-kaedah Konsili Vatikan II. Maka, kini umat beriman diantar lebih dekat kepada Liturgi kudus. Itulah buah dan segala usaha yang digalakkan selama empat abad terakhir, tetapi terutama pada abad kita, berkat studi liturgi yang direstui dan dimajukan oleh S. Pius X dan para penggantinya.

16. Perayaan Ekaristi adalah tindakan Kristus sendiri bersama umat Allah yang tersusun secara hierarki. Baik bagi Gereja universal dan Gereja partikular, mahupun bagi setiap orang beriman, Ekaristi merupakan pusat seluruh kehidupan kristian. Sebab dalam perayaan Ekaristi terletak puncak karya Allah menguduskan dunia, dan puncak karya manusia memuliakan Bapa lewat Kristus, Putera Allah, dalam Roh Kudus. Kecuali itu, perayaan Ekaristi merupakan pengenangan misteri penebusan sepanjang tahun. Dengan demikian, boleh dikatakan misteri penebusan tersebut dihadirkan untuk umat. Segala perayaan ibadat lainnya, juga pekerjaan sehari-hari dalam kehidupan kristian, berkaitan erat dengan perayaan Ekaristi: bersumber dari padanya dan tertuju kepadanya.

17. Oleh kerana itu, sungguh penting untuk mengatur perayaan Ekaristi atau Perjamuan Tuhan tersebut sedemikian rupa sehingga para pelayan dan umat beriman lainnya, dapat berpartisipasi dalam perayaan itu menurut tugas dan peranan masing-masing, serta dapat memetik buah-hasil Ekaristi sepenuh-penuhnya. Itulah yang dikehendaki Kristus ketika menetapkan korban ekaristi Tubuh dan Darah-Nya. Dengan maksud itu pula Ia mempercayakan misteri ini kepada Gereja, mempelai-Nya yang terkasih, sebagai kenangan akan wafat dan kebangkitan-Nya.
Revised GIRM (2002) – 3rd typical edition

1. What is the GIRM?

1.1 GIRM 21: Aim of Instruction: to guide for properly arranging the celebration, and provide rules to celebrate the various forms of the Eucharistic Celebration i.e. Mass without Congregation, Mass with Congregation (without deacon, with deacon), etc.

1.2 It is a set of norms we must follow so that the Eucharistic Celebration will be a valid and licit Catholic celebration (Constitution on Sacred Liturgy, no.11). These norms (399 articles) are to ensure that the faithful take part in the celebration fully aware of what they are doing, actively engaged in the rite, and enriched by its effects, i.e. full, conscious and active participation. (Constitution on Sacred Liturgy, no. 11).

2. Reasons for a 3rd typical edition (2002):

It is an on-going reform, a witness to unbroken Tradition (GIRM 7-9), and accepting adaptations local to the people in the region of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei (GIRM 10-11)

2.1 This revised GIRM is an on-going liturgical reform started by the Second Ecumenical Council (1962-65).

First GIRM 1969/70, second 1976; third edition GIRM 2002. It is not right to compare this third edition with the previous editions, rather we take the present state of the celebration and look at the desire and decision of Vatican Council II. And Vatican Council II goes back to the Council of Trent and the Missal of Pius V. Vatican Council II, fulfilment of Council of Trent, wishes that some rites be restored “to the original norms of the holy Fathers” but managed to change only a little in the Missal of 1570 of Pius V because of contemporary problems assailing sacrificial nature of Mass, ministerial priesthood, real and permanent presence. Lex orandi, lex credendi - the law of prayer is the law of belief, the Roman Rule of Prayer. First 300 years of our faith is clearly contained and expressed in the liturgical prayers, even before the formation of the Creed (Nicene 325) or any other dogmatic declaration.

2.2 Thus, the revised GIRM is an on-going return to the original norms, to be true to the deposit of faith of the mystery of the Eucharist while adapting to times and circumstances, THE tradition and traditions/expressions.

2.3 Examples of adaptations because of pastoral concerns: catechetical (vernacular), homily on Sundays and feast days, participation and sacramental communion, then Vatican Council II communion under both kinds, mass for various occasions and needs, all in all 400 years of reform.

2. The Nature of the Sacred Liturgy and Its Importance in the Church’s Life: (summary of the Constitution on Sacred Liturgy (SC), 4th December 1963)

2.1 God wishes all men “to be saved and to come to knowledge of the truth” (1 Timothy 2:4).

In times past, God spoke to the Fathers through the prophets (Hebrew 1 :1), when the fullness of time had come sent His Son, the Word made flesh, anointed by the Holy Spirit, to preach the Gospel to the poor, to heal the contrite of heart, (Isaiah 61:1 ; Luke 4:18), to be a “bodily and spiritual medicine,” (Ephesians 7:2) the Mediator between God and man (1 Timothy 2:5). Therefore, Jesus Christ became the instrument of our salvation (SC, 5).

2.2 The work of Jesus Christ are:

(a) redeeming mankind (b) giving perfect glory to God

How does Jesus achieve these tasks? Paschal Mystery: His blessed Passion, Resurrection from the dead, and glorious Ascension, whereby “dying he destroyed our death and rising, he restored our life” (Easter Preface of the Roman Missal) [obedience to the Father’’s will – sacrifice – die – offering = perfect worship]

2.3 Just as Christ was sent by the Father to do the wonderful works of God, we, too, are sent by Jesus, filled with the Holy Spirit. What do we do?

(a) Preach the Gospel to every creature (Mark 16:15), proclaim that the Son of God, by His death and resurrection, had freed us from the power of Satan (Acts 26:18) and from death, and brought us into the kingdom of His Father.

(b) Accomplish the work of salvation that we proclaim by means of sacrifice and sacraments, around which the entire liturgical life revolves.

Thus by baptism, we are plunged into the paschal mystery of Christ: we die with Him, are buried with Him, are raised up with Him (Romans 6:4; Ephesians 2:6; Colossians 3:1; 2 Timothy 2:11).

2.4 Eucharistic Celebration:

(a) make present “the victory and triumph of Jesus Christ’s death” (Council of Trent, Session XIII, October 11, 1551 decree On the Holy Eucharist chap.5)

(b) giving thanks “to God for his unspeakable gift” in Christ Jesus, “to the praise of his glory” (Ephesians 1:12) through the power of the Holy Spirit.

2.5 Jesus Christ is present in the Sacrifice of the Mass. How?

(a) through the ministry of priests

(b) especially under the Eucharistic species of bread and wine

(c) in the sacraments, so that when a man baptizes, it is really Christ Himself who baptizes (SC, 7).

(d) in His word – since it is He Himself who speaks when the holy Scriptures are read in the Church.

(e) He is present when the Church prays and sings, for He promised: “For where two or three are gathered together for my sake, there I am in the midst of them.” (Matthew 18:20).

2.6. In the liturgy, we are sanctified signified by signs perceptible to the senses. Every liturgical celebration is a sacred action surpassing all others; no other action of the Church is equal to it in effectiveness. (SC, 7)

2.7 Liturgy is the centre and summit of Christian life: Liturgy is the high point toward which the activity of the Church is directed. For the aim and object of apostolic works are: all who are made sons of God by faith and baptism should come together to praise God in the midst of His Church, to take part in the Sacrifice, and to eat the Lord’s Supper. (SC, 10)

2.8 Liturgy moves the faithful, filled with “the paschal sacraments,” to be “one in holiness” (Post-communion for Paschal Vigil and Easter Sunday Masses). Liturgy prays, “they may hold fast in their lives to what they have grasped by their faith” (Collect of the Mass for Tuesday of Easter Week).

2.9 In the Eucharist, we renew our covenant with the Lord, we are drawn into the compelling love of Christ and set us on fire. From the liturgy, especially the Eucharist, grace is poured forth upon us; and our sanctification in Christ and the glorification of God, to which all other activities of the Church are directed toward their end. (SC, 10)

2.10 In order that the liturgy may be able to produce its full effects, it is necessary that the faithful come to it with proper dispositions, that their minds should be attuned to their voices, and that they should co-operate with divine grace lest they receive it in vain. (2 Corinthians 6:1).

What does this mean and imply?

(a) Pastors (priest) must therefore see to it that, when the liturgy is celebrated, the laws governing valid and licit celebration are observed.

(b) All liturgical ministries must carefully and properly prepare themselves well, so that together with the pastor, they are to ensure that the faithful take part fully aware of what they are doing, actively engaged in the rite, and enriched by its effects, i.e. full, conscious and active participation. (SC 11).

3. Summary:

3.1 GIRM is an on-going process to recapture the true significance of the Mass received and expressed through the ages, that we may participate more meaningfully and fruitfully.

3.2 What is that great heritage/deposit of faith? What is the centre of all Christian life? The Eucharist. What is the Eucharist? The high point of God sanctifying and saving us through the death and resurrection of Christ; our high point of worshiping the Father, adoring Him in his beloved son, and in the Holy Spirit. It is the place where the mysteries of salvation are made present and encountered in our life and grow in holiness and grace. What the mystery of the Mass is and how it is celebrated is important so that we can gain access to the source of life and holiness.

Some notable Changes to current practices

1. General Arrangement, Environment, Norms:

Floral decoration: never too much, around rather than on altar

Candles: There shall be at least 2, 4 or even 6 on Sundays and Feast Days, 7 when the Bishop of the Diocese is presiding; nothing is mentioned about oil lamps as substitutes for candles.

Incensation: used for Entrance Procession, mostly 3 swings of the thurible for bishop, priest, or people, crucifix, Book of Gospels, gifts of bread and wine, consecrated bread and wine, single swings for altar).

Money and other gifts brought up at the Presentation are to be placed away from the altar in another suitable place.

Ambo: Not only for scriptural readings, but also Responsorial Psalm, intercessions of the Prayer of the Faithful.

Concelebration: Priests are not allowed to join in a concelebration if late and must not leave before the conclusion.

2. Mass Texts, Hymns, Silences & Pauses:

Mass texts: The exact Mass text of the following must be used whether sung or recited: Responsorial psalms, Gospel Acclamation Verse, Gloria, Sanctus, Agnus Dei; the entrance/offertory/communion chants texts and only Conference-approved-substitute hymns may be used; Communion Chant begins at the priest’s communion.

Pauses and Silences are now imposed: In and around the church before celebration; before the Penitential Rite, after Opening Prayer “Let us pray”; before Liturgy of the Word; before and after scriptural readings; after the homily; after communion; after Post Communion “Let us pray” when not preceded by silence after Communion.

3. Common Postures, Gestures, Movements:

Dancing is not provided for anywhere during Mass;

Bowing: Priest and people make a profound bow at “by the power of the Holy Spirit … and became man” in the Creed; Simple / bow of the head to be made when the three Divine Persons are named together and at the names of Jesus, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and of the Saint in whose honor Mass is being celebrated; at Communion each communicant is to make a profound bow as he/she approaches to receive the Body of Christ.

Priest/deacon no longer raises and shows Book of Gospels after the reading.

The people sit at Presentation of the Gifts (this is not new – to stand was introduced by some dioceses in the Region).

Genuflection: Priest must genuflect after raising the Body and Blood of Christ at the Consecration (not just bow), and also before the “Behold the Lamb of God; People must bow profoundly when the priest genuflects at Consecration if for physical reason they cannot kneel.

Lord’s Prayer: nothing is said about the gesture of the people (raising or extending of hands or holding of hands are certainly not obligatory);

Sign of Peace given only to those nearest (not to move around to avoid distraction) in a sober manner (no provision for song during sign of peace), the priest not to leave sanctuary to offer the sign of peace unless for a serious reason;

Extraordinary Ministers of Communion to approach altar only after the priest’s communion, they are to receive communion and the ciborium from the hands of the priest; priest himself is expected to take and return the blessed sacrament to the tabernacle should there be real need for extra consecrated hosts;

Communion from the same Eucharist: People are to receive communion consecrated at the same Eucharist, and not from the tabernacle reserve.

Announcements: When these are truly necessary, the priest is to make them.

4. Blessing of non-Communicants:

Until further notice, after some consultation on the thorny issue, Archbishop Lee has decided that blessing of non communicants at communion is to be given only to children who come together with their parents/guardians. Adults for whatever reason who may not receive communion, are not to be blessed.


1. Mengapakah perlu adanya Pedoman baru?

Pembentukan Berterusan, Kelangusngan Tradisi yang Tak Terputus (PUMR 7-9), dan menerima penyesuaian serta penyerasian (PUMR 10-11)

1.1 PUMR baru ialah pembaharuan liturgi yang berterusan dimulakan oleh Konsili Ekumenikal Kedua (1962-65).

Edisi pertama 1969/70, kedua 1976, ketiga 2002. Tidak tepat membandingkan satu edisi dengan yang lain, lebih betul jika keadaan perlaksanaan liturgi dinilai menurut prinsip-prinsip yang telah ditentukan oleh Konsili Vatikan II. Pembaharuan yang dikehendaki Konsili Vatikan II sama dengan Konsili Trente (“kembali kepada bentuk peraturan asli para Bapa Gereja”) meskipun Misale Trente atau Misale Pius V, tidak dapat mengubah banyak disebabkan ditimpa masalah-masalah dogma mengenai hakikat Misa, imamat, hadiran sungguh-sungguh dan tetap Yesus di dalam Roti dan Anggur. 300 tahun pertama iman kita diungkapkan hanya di dalam doa-doa liturgi, juga wujud sebelum syahadat Nicea (325) atau mana-mana deklarasi dogma dikarang.

1.2 Gereja mahu kembali ke warisan Ekaristi yang asli dan sebenarnya, tetapi pada masa yang sama menerima juga perubahan masa dan budaya.

1.3 Contoh-contoh penyesuaian/penyerasian atas sebab-sebab pastoral: kateketikal (tempatan), homili pada Hari Minggu dan hari raya, penglibatan dan komuni sacramental, kemudian Konsili Vatikan II membenarkan penerimaan komuni di bawah dua-rupa (roti dan anggur), misa untuk pelbagai keadaan dan keperluan. 400 tahun pembaharuan.

2. Kepentingan dan Martabat Perayaan Ekaristi (PUMR Bab I):

2.1 PUMR 16: Pusat keseluruhan kehidupan kristian, menurut hierarki. Puncak karya pengudusan Tuhan dalam Kristus, dan peyembahan kita kepada Bapa melalui Kristus dalam Roh Kudus.

2.2 PUMR 17: Sangat penting untuk berpartisipasi untuk memperoleh hasil, kerana justeru untuk ini sakramen Tubuh dan Darah ditubuhkan Yesus buat mempelaiNya.

2.3 PUMR 18: Perlunya peryertaan (partisipasi) yang penuh, aktif, dan sedar, suatu partisipasi yang berkobar dengan Iman, Harapan, dan Kasih, dihendaki Gereja dan dituntut oleh pembaptisan.

2.4 PUMR 20: Ekaristi dilaksanakan melalui tanda-tanda lahir untuk memperkuat dan mengungkap iman. Pentingnya memilih dan mengatur bentuk-bentuk dan unsur-unsur yang diberi Gereja agar memenuhi keperluan-keperluan umat.

2.5 PUMR 21: Tujuan Pedoman: membimbing umat agar mengurus dengan baik perayaan, dengan memberi peraturan-peraturan untuk merayakan Misa Kudus dalam pelbagai bentuk.

2.6 PUMR 22: Ekaristi keuskupan/Gereja Tempatan penting, khususnya yang dipimpin uskup, para paderi dan umat. Tanggungjawab menjaga misteri-misteri Tuhan dipercayakan kepada uskup. Dia pengalak, pengendali, dan penjaga keseluruhan kehidupan liturgi diosis.

2.7 PUMR 24: Penyesuaian/penyerasian: Kebanyakannya mengenai pilihan upacara-upacara atau teks-teks doa yang sudah disediakan misale, bukan yang diciptakan oleh paderi pemimpin. “Namun paderi harus ingat bahawa dia adalah pelayan liturgi kudus, dan bahawa ia sendiri tidak diizinkan menambah, mengurangi, atau mengubah sesuatu dalam perayaan Misa atas kemahuannya sendiri”.

3. Kesimpulan:

3.1 PUMR ialah suatu proses pembaharuan yang dimulakan oleh Konsili Trente, diteruskan oleh Konsili Vatikan II, untuk mengambil kembali makna sebenar Ekaristi yang diterima dan diungkapkan dari abad ke abad, agar kita dapat melibatkan diri dengan lebih bermakna dan berbuah hasil.

3.2 Apakah warisan iman yang paling penting? Apakah pusat seluruh hidup Kristiani? Ekarisiti kerana ialah adalah kemuncak Allah mengudus dan menyelamatkan kita melalui wafat dan kebnagkitan Kristus; ia adalah kemuncak penyembahan kita kepada Bapa melalui Kristus dalam kuasa Roh Kudus. Di sinilah misteri-misteri penyelamatan dihadirkan dan dialami oleh kita dan kita bertumbuh dalam kekudusan dan rahmat. Apakah misyeri Misa dan bagaimana ia dirayakan sangat penting agar kita dapat menerima sumber kehidupan dan kekudusan.

The Angelus Prayer

The Angelus Prayer:

L: The Angel of the Lord declared to Mary:
A: And she conceived of the Holy Spirit.

Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

L: Behold the handmaid of the Lord: A: Be it done unto me according to Thy word.
Hail Mary . . .

L: And the Word was made Flesh: A: And dwelt among us.
Hail Mary . . .

L: Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God:
 A: That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

L: Let us pray:
A: Pour forth, we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy grace into our hearts; that we, to whom the incarnation of Christ, Thy Son, was made known by the message of an angel, may by His Passion and Cross be brought to the glory of His Resurrection, through the same Christ Our Lord. Amen.

The Angelus (Latin for Angel) is a Christian devotion in memory of the Incarnation. The name Angelus is derived from the opening words: Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ and is practiced by reciting as versicle and response three Biblical verses describing the mystery; alternating with the salutation "Hail Mary!" The devotion was traditionally recited in Roman Catholic churches, convents, and monasteries three times daily: 6:00 am, noon, and 6:00 pm (many churches still follow the devotion, and some practice it at home). The devotion is also used by some Anglican and Lutheran churches. The Angelus is usually accompanied by the ringing of the Angelus bell, which is to spread good-will to everyone on Earth. The angel referred to in the prayer is the Angel Gabriel, a messenger of God who revealed to Mary that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God (Luke 1:26-27).

Angelus (Latin untuk Malaikat) merupakan satu devosi Kristiani sebagai kenangan akan Inkarnasi. Nama Angelus didapati dari kata-kata pembukaan: Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ dan diamalkan dengan mengucapkan ayat dan respon tiga ayat Alkitab yang menerangkan misteri; diselitkan dengan ucapan hormat ”Salam Maria!” Secara tardisi devosi ini diucapkan dalam Gereja-gereja, konven dan biara Katolik tiga kali sehari: 6:00 pagi, tengahari, dan 6:00 petang (banyak gereja masih mengamalkan devosi ini, dan ada yang mengamalkannya di rumah). Devosi ini turut digunakan oleh gereja-gereja Anglikan dan Luteran. Angels sering diiringi dengan membunyikan loceng Angelus, yakni menyampaikan muhibbah kepada semua orang di Bumi. Malaikat yang dirujuk dalam doa tersebut ialah Malaikat Gabriel, seorang penyampai Allah, dia yang menunjukkan kepada Maria yang beliau akan mengandung seorang anak lelaki yang akan lahir sebagai Anak Allah (Lukas 1:26-27)

Tanda-tanda Liturgi

Tanda-tanda Liturgi

“Maka sewajarnnya, Liturgi dipandang pelaksanaan tugas imam Yesus Kristus (1). Dalamnya, lewat tanda-tanda lahir (2) ditunjukkan dan dihasilkan pengudusan manusia (1), masing-masing menurut caranya sendiri (2), dan dilaksanakan ibadat umum seutuhnya oleh Tubuh Mistik Yesus Kristus, yakni oleh Kepala dan anggota-anggota-Nya.” (SC 7)

(1) Pelaksanaan tugas Yesus yang menguduskan itu didatangkan kita melalui tanda-tanda lahir di dalam perayaan liturgy.

Siapakah Yesus? Apakah diriNya dan perlasanaanNya kudus? Pada masa kini, sesiapa orang, setiap nilai, tingkahlaku, segalanya, dipersoalkan oleh manusia yang menjadi angkuh hatinya. Tidak ada lagi rasa suci, hormat, tunduk. Manusia menganggap dirinya allah, dan bersikap begitu saja terhadap yang Ilahi dan karyaNya. Sikap yang kehilangan sikap suci dan kudus telahpun terbawa ke dalam perayaan liturgy.

(2) Asal harapaan mengubahkan keadaan jahat ini terdapat dengan mengubahsesuaikan sikap kita dengan melaksanakan tand-tanda lahir dalam liturgy, yang melambangkan pelaksanaan Tuhan dan pembalasan kita kepadaNya.

Bahasa lahir itu tidak pernah dan tak menipu. Bagaimana kita nampaknya, berbaunya, bertata sikap dan bergerak tubuhnya, semua ini menjadi alat pengudusan Ilahi jika dilaksanakan sesuai dengan apa yang dilambangkan dan dimaksukan.

Oleh sebah itu, hanya diri kita dan benda-benda kita yang terbaik harus digunakan di dalam perayaan liturgi.

“Tanda-tanda” mengenai bukan sahaja bentuk atau upacara yang kecil-kecilan, tetapi juga mengenai yang dasar dan yang keseluruhan. Tuhan menggunakan semua tanda lahiran besar dan kecil untuk menyampaikan kekudusan bagi kita, dari Upacara Pembukaan sampai Upacara Pengutusan Misa Kudus.

Tanda-tanda dasar Ekaristi

Mengambil roti dan anggur
Bersyukur Allah sebab penyelamatan yang dikurniakan
Membagi-bagi roti dan anggur untuk disantap ...
menurut yang diarahkan Yesus pada perjamuan terakhir untuk mengenangkanNya.

Pengertian tanda-tanda besar dan kecil

Dirinya pelayan (imam, pembaca, putera altar, penyanyi, pelayan komuni luar biasa, warden, umat, setiap orang dalam pelaksanaan tugas pelayanan masing-masingnya).

Sabda Tuhan

Ruang liturgi, perlengapan gereja, suasana (altar, ambo/mimbar, salip, kursi imam, piala, buku-buku, kain-kain, suasan yang cukup selesa, dsbn)
Elemen-elemen benda: roti, anggur, air, lilin, pedupaan, dll
Doa, music dan lagu-lagu, hening dsbn
Tata gerak (gestures - berlutut, berbungkuk, mengulurkan tangan, tutup tangan ..), (gestures), sikap tubuh (“postures” duduk, berdiri...)
Pakain dan warna-warna
Penutup: Membina kembali Sikap Penghormatan terhadap yang suci

Secara sungguh-sungguh Allah yang mahakudus hadir di roti dan anggur yang dikonsekrasikan. Dia hadir juga di perhimpunan liturgi, Sabda, Pelayan. Padahal, yang Mahadukus hadir di setiap tanda di mana Sabda Kristus dan tindakan pengudusanNya dilihat, didengar, dan dialami.

Maka, ucapkanlah dan melakukanlah apa yang sungguh-sungguh dimaksukan, dan maksukan dengan sungguh-sungguh apa yang diucapkan dan ditandai! Lewat itu karya pengudusan Tuhan terus menhasilkan buah di hidup kita.


Kerohanian Ekaristi

Apakah itu Kerohanian Ekaristi?

Suatu cara hidup menurut apa yang dirayakan di dalam Ekaristi, setiap orang di dalam keadaan/panggilan/peranan/tempat hidupnya.

Ekaristi: Sumber dan Puncak kehidupan Kristen
Ekaristi, Sakramen yang menginitiasikan secara berterusan
Sakramen2 initiasi: Pembaptisan-Penguatan-Ekaristi
Ekaristi terus initiasikan apa yang telah diterima waktu pembaptisan dan penguatan
- Dosa2 diampuni
- Kelahiran baru oleh Roh Kudus, menjadi anak Allah
- Menjadi anggota Gereja, Tubuh Kristus
- Diperkuatkan dan diutus untuk Pelayanan dan Kesaksian

Maka, Ekaristi terus memperupakan diri kita kepada rupanya Kristus, rupa semporna Allah yg tak kelihatan

Lagipula, ia memperaktifkan semua sakramen kehidupan yang lain: Penitenza, Pengurapan Orang Sakit, Pengtahbisan, Perkahwinan. Ia merupakan sakramen dasar. Tanpanya kehidupan Kristen tak dapat diamalkan.

Ekaristi dan Kehidupan Kristen / Kerohanian (CL 10, PUMR)
Apakah realiti yang dirayakan di Ekaristi yang mesti dijadikan kita?

Arah dua pelaksanaan pengudusan:

Tidakan Ilahi: Allah mengasihi manusia, mengutus Yesus yang mati dan bangkit dan kini hadir di Ekaristi (arah “menurun” yang menguduskan)

Tidakan manusia: mengikutsertakan penyembahan Kristus kepada Bapa, dalam kuasa Roh Kudus (arah “menaiki” menyembah Allah melalui Kristus (kebenaran) dan di kuduskan oleh Roh Kudus (roh)

Kerohanian dan Liturgi Ekaristi di dalam Misa

Princip2 kerohanian berasal dari Ekaristi yang dimaksukan, ditubuhkan dan diarahkan oleh Kristus, simpanan/warisan iman Gereja yang dasar.

Intinya perayaan Ekaristi (konsekrasi) berbunyi:

Pada malam sebelum menderita sengasara, Yesus mengambil roti, mengucap syukur dan memuji Dikau, lalu membagi-bagi roti itu, dan memberikannya kepada para murid seraya berkata:

Terimalah dan makanlah!
Inilah Tubuhku yang dikurbankan bagimu...
Terimalah dan minumlah!
Inilah piala Darahku,
Darah perjanjian baru dan kekal,
Yang ditumpahkan bagimu dan bagi semua orang demi pengampunan dosa.
Kenangkanlah aku dengan merayakan peristiwa ini.

Misteri/Karya Penyelamatan yang dirayakan di dalam Ekaristi sebegitu penuh makna, aspek2nya begitu berkekaitan sehingga nampaknya complex. Hanya satu kata yang dapat menjelaskannya.

1. Perjamuan Paska (persaudaraan, persatuan dan persekutuan dalam perjalanan paska melewat kematian menuju kehidupan

2. Kesyukuran (perasaan berbelasbudi, atas penyelamatan yang laksanakan Allah)

3. Komuni (persatuan, berjalan bersama dengan Yesus dan sesama, rezeki untuk perjalanan)

4. Kehadiran Yesus di roti dan anggur (perjumpaan dan perubahan/transformasi)

5. Pergorbanan (ketaatan semporna dan ketundukan kepada Allah)

6. Perjanjian baru dan kekal (kesetiaan Allah, kesetiaan satu sama dengan yg lain)

7. Pengampunan dosa2 (kasih, belaskasih, persembuhan bagi para pendosa)

8. Kenangan kematian dan kebangkitan (mengenangkan dan berjumpa dengan dia yang telah mengasihi dan mati bagi kita – misteri paska

Singkatnya: Menjadi, hidup, dan bertindak sama seperti Kristus.

Upacara2 utama maupun kecil dapat mempertunjukkan princip2 kerohanian Ekaristi, misalnya Perkumpulan dan Pembukaan, Membawa persembahan, juga sesuatu doa, tata gerak, sikap tubuh, hening, dsn

Kerohanian dan bahagian Liturgi Sabda

Suatu dari dua bahagian utama Ekaristi, hasil pertumbuhan yang sewajarnya, sudah ditentukan pada generasi Kristen yang pertama.

Sabda memaklumkan, menjelaskan, mengundang, memperkuatkan, dan membimbing para pendengar, untuk memasuki dan meterai perjanjian dengan Allah bersama Kristus dalam pengorbanan Ekaristi kelak.

Sabda dalam perayaan liturgi bukan hanya kebijaksanaan kitab suci atau inspirasi rohani, kerana apabila Kitab Suci dibaca di dalam Perhimpunan Umate beriman, Kristus sendiri yang bersabda, Sabda semporna dan yang menyelematkan. Dalam nama Kristus Umat menerimaNya, mengambil bahagian menjadi Anak kesayangan Allah, yang taat sama mati.Sabad liturgi kepuyaan Gereja/Perhimpunan beriman.

Allah bersabda, manusia menjawab bersama Kristus dikuasai Roh Kudus dan melakukannya, sehingga manusia hidup bukan dari roti sahaja tetapi dari setiap firman yang keluar dari mulut Allah – seperti Kristus. NB Kata “Firman” and “Sabda”.


Sikap Devosi (kebaktian) merujuk setiap segi kehidupan kepada Liturgi Ekaristi, dan menghadirkan Misa kudus ke dalam hidup sehari-hari.

Membina kebiasaan mencari princip2 hidup pribadi, communiti, secara berterusan, dari misteri Kristus yang dirayakan di dalam Ekaristi, khususnya Perayaan Ekaristi bersama pada Hari Tuhan. Contoh2: Hubungan Ekaristi dengan perkahwinan, hidup keluarga, sosial, dan karya2 kerasulan.

Tuesday, July 20, 2010

WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? A Brief Historical Survey

Session 1: A Brief Historical Surve
(By, Dr. Sherman,sfo,  Permanent Deacon, Director of the Institute Pastoral Centre, Melaka Johor Diocese)

► Inasmuch as we would like to think that Christianity exists in unity today, it does not.

 Patristic Period : schism in the Eastern Church

 Medieval Period : schism between East and West

 Reformation Period : schism in the Western Church

 Modern Period : efforts towards reconciliation and mutual understanding

A simplified chart of historical branches within the Christian belief system

1. Split in the Eastern Church (Patristic Period)

► The Church, East and West, held councils to resolve issues when less formal dialogue failed to produce a consensus.

 1st Nicaea (325) 5th Constantinople (553)

2nd Constantinople (381) 6th Constantinople (680)

3rd Ephesus (431) 7th Nicaea (787)

4th Chalcedon (451)

► A major split took place at the 4th Council (451).

► The Council of Chalcedon held that Jesus has two natures - one divine and one human. But the council did not also confess that the two natures are inseparable and united. To some leaders of the Orthodox Church, this was tantamount to accepting a heresy.

► The Oriental Orthodox churches were therefore often called Monophysite churches.

► In recent times, members of the Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian Orthodox Churches have come to a common understanding.

► Oriental Orthodoxy is a dominant religion in Armenia (94%), the ethnically Armenian breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (95%), and in Ethiopia (51%, the total Christian population being 62%), especially in two regions in Ethiopia: Amhara (82%) and Tigray (96%), as well as the chartered city of Addis Ababa (82%), and is also important in Oromia Region (41%). It is also one of two dominant religions in Eritrea (50%). Whereas it is a minority in Egypt (15%), Sudan (3-5% out of the 15% of total Christians), and Syria (2-3% out of the 10% of total Christians). Also in Kerala, India (8% out of the 23% of Christians). In total number of members, the Ethiopian church is the largest of all Oriental Orthodox Churches, and is second among all Orthodox Churches among Eastern and Oriental Churches (exceeded in number only by the Russian Orthodox Church).

2. Split between Eastern and Western Churches (Medieval Period)

► The patristic period centred on the Mediterranean world and on seats of power such as Rome and Constantinople.

► But as Rome fell and Islam was spreading widely, the centres of Christianity shifted from the Mediterranean world to Western Europe.

► By the 11th century, stability had settled upon the region and three major power groupings had emerged to replace the former Roman Empire:

i) Byzantium

ii) Western Europe

iii) The Caliphate

► As relations between the Eastern Church and the Western Church became increasingly strained, a final break took place in 1054. Some reasons for the strain:

i) Disagreement over the filioque clause in the Nicene creed

ii) Political rivalry

3. Split in the Western Church (Reformation Period)

► A new period of Western Christian theology began in the 16th century. The most significant development was the Protestant Reformation (1522).

► The Reformation was complex. Its agenda went beyond reforming the doctrine of the Church. It addressed social, political, and economic issues. It began with Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk and a biblical theologian.

► In response to the Reformation, the Catholic Church did some housekeeping. The Pope of the day (Paul III) convened the Council of Trent (1545) in order to clarify and defend Catholic thought and practice against the evangelical opponents.

► Strangely, a number of beliefs that Protestant Christians hold today are rather divergent from Luther’s position.

► The number of Protestant denominations in existent today is difficult to calculate, but it has been estimated that there are over 40,000 of them all around the world.



Session 8: The Call to Christian Unity
1. The word most commonly used in association with Christian unity is “ecumenism”. It is derived from Greek οἰκουμένη (oikoumene), which means "the inhabited world”.

► It refers to the movement towards co-operation among streams of Christianity.

 For Catholics, complete unity means reconciling all who profess Christian faith to bring them into a single organisation, i.e. union with the Roman Catholic Church.

 For Orthodox, it means a complete theological unity.

 For Protestants, spiritual unity suffices.

2. The Catholic Church

► It is a supreme duty to seek full unity with estranged Christian communions.

 At the same time the Catholic Church rejects any promiscuous and false union that would mean glossing over the teaching of Scripture and Tradition.

► Before the Second Vatican Council, the main stress was laid on this second aspect, i.e., avoiding the compromise of the teaching of Scripture and Tradition.

 At the Council, the Church called for a "gentle invitation to seek and find that unity for which Jesus Christ prayed so ardently to his heavenly Father”.

 Two landmark documents are the Council’s Unitatis Redintegratio (21 November 1964) and John Paul II's encyclical Ut Unum Sint (25 May 1995).

► The Catholic Church is not a member of the World Council of Churches because of its self-understanding. However, it is a full member of the WCC’s Faith and Order Standing Committee.

► While some Eastern Orthodox Churches commonly baptise converts from the Catholic Church, the Catholic Church has always accepted the validity of all the sacraments administered by the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches.

► The Catholic Church likewise has never applied the terms "heterodox" or "heretic" to the Orthodox Church or its members.

3. The Orthodox Church

► The Orthodox Church works to embrace estranged communions and simultaneously to guard against a promiscuous and false union with them.

► The Orthodox Churches have been leaders in the Interfaith movement.

► Some Patriarchs enlist their communions as charter members of the WCC.

► Nevertheless, the Orthodox have not been willing to participate in any redefinition of the Christian faith toward a reduced, minimal, anti-dogmatic Christianity.

► One way to observe the attitude of the Orthodox Church towards non-Orthodox is to see how they receive new members from other faiths.

 Non-Christians who wish to become Orthodox Christians are accepted through the sacraments of baptism and chrismation.

 Protestants and Catholics are sometimes received through chrismation only, provided they had received a trinitarian baptism.

 Also Protestants and Catholics are often referred to as "heterodox", which simply means "other believing", rather than as heretics ("other-choosing"), implying that they did not wilfully reject the Church.

4. The Protestant Church

► Most mainline Protestant denominations became ecumenical-minded since the 1960s, especially at the formation of the World Council of Churches. They have been involved in a variety of ecumenical groups, working in some cases toward organic denominational unity and in other cases for cooperative purposes alone.

► In 1999, the representatives of Lutheran World Federation and Roman Catholic Church signed The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification.

► Protestant Churches in Malaysia and Singapore are almost entirely Evangelical and take a rather exclusive position, and are therefore not really keen.

5. Contemporary Developments

► The original anathemas (excommunications) that mark the "official" Great Schism of 1054 between Catholics and Orthodox were mutually revoked in 1965 by the Pope and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

► The year 2006 saw a resumption of the series of meetings for theological dialogue between representatives of the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches (previously suspended because of failure to reach agreement on the question of the Eastern Catholic Churches).

► Catholic and Orthodox bishops in North America are engaged in an ongoing dialogue. They are meeting together periodically as the "North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation".

6. Opposition to Ecumenism

► A minority of Christians oppose ecumenism. They tend to be from churches of Evangelical, or Pentecostal backgrounds and strongly conservative sections of mainline Protestant churches. Part of the Orthodox Church also has opposition.

► Also, many Evangelical and Charismatic Christians view ecumenism as a sign of end times apostasy before Jesus Christ's return as prophesied in the Bible, and see substantial similarities between the doctrinal stance of end-times false teachers and the theological pronouncements of certain ecumenical leaders.

► A majority of Evangelical churches, including most Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, non-denominational Christians, and Evangelical Christian denominations, do not participate in the ecumenical movements.

 The doctrine of separation is adopted by some Evangelical churches towards churches and denominations that have joined ecumenical activities.

 Many Pentecostals, such as Assemblies of God, shun ecumenism.

 Some of the more conservative Evangelicals and Pentecostals view interdenominational activities or organisations in more conservative circles as a softer form of ecumenism and shun them while others do not.

► The minority Catholic opposition to ecumenism centres on Traditionalist Catholics and associations such as the Society of St Pius X (the separated group).



Session 7: Conversations about Ethics

1. Abortion and Contraception

► Catholics: Sanctity of Life

 The conservative Christian position is that life begins at conception.

 To eject any life form from the womb at any point of pregnancy is homicide.

 Pregnancy arising from incest or rape has no bearing on the quality of a potential life.

 The lone exception is a mother requiring an urgent life-or-death procedure.

 The use of contraception is equal to abortion - both being seen as a "culture of death". Condoms are permitted for couples if one partner is HIV positive.

► Orthodox: Sanctity of Life

 Orthodox Christians may never destroy human life in any form.

 At no time may they secure an abortion, assist another in obtaining one, or support causes which promote abortion as a right of the parents.

 In the case of rape or incest, the Church does not accept the idea of abortion as a solution to the problem because there is an alternative of adoption.

 Different opinions exist within the Orthodox Church regarding the question of birth control and contraception.

► Protestants: Varied Positions on Abortion, Yes to Contraception

 Most Protestant denominations are against abortion. Some of these denominations make exceptions for abortion performed to save the life of the mother, and in cases of pregnancy as a result of rape or incest. The more liberal Protestants (particularly Western Mainliners) are generally pro-choice.

 Contraception is almost always permitted.

2. Divorce and Remarriage

► Catholics: Marriage is Indissoluble

 Divorce is a grave offense against the natural law.

 Remarriage adds to the gravity of the rupture: permanent adultery.

 Divorce is immoral also because it introduces disorder into family and society.

 The separation of spouses while maintaining the marriage bond can be legitimate in certain cases provided for by canon law.

 In certain cases, civil divorce for ensuring certain legal rights can be tolerated.

► Orthodox: Divorce and Remarriage Permitted

 Divorce is permitted within the Church and remarriage may be allowed.

 The Church is compassionate as regards situations where two people can no longer live peacefully or provide children with a nurturing home life.

► Protestants: Varied Positions

 Marriage is a union between a man and a woman, which is ordained by God.

 Divorce is permissible, if at all, only in very specific circumstances. But divorce is seen as a more serious issue among conservative Protestants.

 For the more liberal Protestants, remarriage following a divorce is acceptable, but not for conservative Protestants.

3. Homosexuality

► Catholics: Acts of Depravity

 Homosexual acts are contrary to the natural law.

 Homosexual persons are called to chastity.

 Homosexuals must be accepted with respect, compassion and sensitivity.

► Orthodox: Contradicts Moral Law

 Homosexuality is forbidden by the Church as contrary to moral law.

 But we must never withhold our love for those who struggle with it.

 Sexual intercourse is to be protected as a sacred expression of love within the context monogamous marriage given for human sanctification.

► Protestants: Varied Positions

 Conservative Protestants are against same-sex unions and see them as a perversion of the natural order of human relationships.

 Liberal Protestants have varied views on such unions. Some will bless same-sex unions in the church, and some even ordain homosexuals as ministers.

4. Active and Passive Euthanasia

► Catholics: Sanctity of Life & Human Dignity

 Preservation of life by any artificial means (e.g. feeding tubes) is obligatory.

 A patient in a "permanent vegetative state" is a person with fundamental human dignity and must receive ordinary and proportionate care.

 When inevitable death is imminent, it is permitted in conscience to take the decision to refuse forms of treatment.

► Orthodox: Sanctity of Life

 Euthanasia is murder. Life must be protected as a sacred gift from God.

 We trust in God to care for us in good times and in bad. To take one's life is to show contempt for God, as a Father, who cares for us with an infinite love.

 Personal suffering has a place in life. Adversities are for our spiritual benefit.

 Like the Catholic position, Orthodox can decide to not use extraordinary means to maintain life in those instances when a person is hopelessly ill.

► Protestants: Quality of Life

 Conservative Protestants believe in the sanctity of life and often have less exceptions than the Catholic position does.

 While liberal Protestants are largely opposed to euthanasia, many advocates (e.g., Joseph Fletcher) and activists have been Protestant clergy and laity.

 Some liberal Protestant denominations support limited forms of euthanasia.

 In the final analysis, one major factor in Protestant life ethics is quality of life.

5. Complexity of the Modern World

► Besides these ethical issues which have been discussed, the modern world presents us daily with many other practical choices to be made about popular culture, marginalised people, environmental concerns, etc.

► One challenge we face is that of forming young people to become a responsible humanity, to see themselves as participants in the Kingdom of God, and to make correct choices in a complex world.

► We must raise them to be godly, and to be able to think and feel with the Church.



Session 6: Conversations about Leadership

1. Ordination of Ministers

► Catholics and Orthodox: Holy Orders

 The term “Holy Orders” refers to people who have been ordained or appointed to offices of pastoral leadership in the Church.

 Ordination of bishops, priests and deacons leaves an indelible mark (called a “sacramental character”) on the recipient’s soul.

► Protestants: Functional Ministers

 No “Holy Orders” because ordination does not have a sacramental character.

 The degree of ministerial authority varies. Some have no ordained office.

 Ordinations are primarily functional in character.

2. Deacons

► Catholics: Transitional and Permanent Deacons

 Icons of Christ the Servant. There are transitional deacons (who have to be celibate) and permanent deacons (who may be married).

 Deacons baptise, witness at a Holy Matrimonies, preside at funerals, at various services, and may give blessings. They cannot give absolution, anoint the sick, or say Mass. In the liturgy, it is proper for them to proclaim the Gospel, deliver the homily, and distribute Holy Communion.

 Permanent deacons are called “Deacon”; transitional deacons “Reverend Mr”.

 Deacons wear the dalmatic and a stole over their left shoulder.

► Orthodox: Lifelong Deacons

 Ikon of Christ. The position is occupied for life. May be married provided the marriage takes place before ordination. Widowed deacons may not remarry.

 There are two administrative positions in the office of the deacon that carry additional titles. Deacons can be archdeacons or protodeacons.

 Depending on local tradition, deacons are styled as either "Father Deacon”, "Deacon Father", or often simply "Deacon" or "Father”.

 In addition to reading the Gospel and assisting in Holy Communion, the deacon censes the icons and people, calls the people to prayer, leads the litanies, and has a role in the dialogue of the Anaphora. He cannot perform Sacred Mysteries except for Baptism in extremis (in danger of death).

 Diaconal liturgical vestments are the sticharion (dalmatic), the orarion (deacon's stole), and the epimanikia (cuffs).

► Protestants: Transitional and Lay Deacons

 A deacon is either a transitional deacon or a lay person.

 Transitional deacons are styled as “Revd” and lay deacons “Deacon”.

 There is no requirement for celibacy.

3. Priests

► Catholics: Celibate Priests

 Priests are icons of Christ the Priest. They may confect all of the sacraments except Holy Orders (the sacrament of governance itself). They are celibate.

 A priest is styled as “Reverend” and usually called “Father”.

 A priest wears a stole around his neck and a chasuble. He may wear a cope for a formal liturgical celebration outside of the Mass.

► Orthodox: Married and Celibate Priests

 A priest is an ikon of Christ. He may be married if the marriage takes place before ordination. Widowed priests may not remarry.

 Priests can be archpriests, archimandrites, or protopresbyters.

 A married priest is "the Reverend Father", a monastic priest is "the Reverend Hieromonk"; a protopresbyter is "the Very Reverend Father"; and an archimandrite is either "the Very Reverend Father" (Greek) or "the Right Reverend Father" (Russian). All are simply addressed as "Father".

► Protestants: Pastors

 The counterparts of priests in the Protestant traditions are “ordained elders”.

 They are usually called “pastors” and are officially styled as “Reverend”.

 Pastors conduct the sacraments, weddings and funerals. They also preach.

 The pastor usually functions administratively and pastorally.

 There is no requirement for celibacy.

4. Bishops

► Catholics: Apostolic Successors

 Bishops are the successors of the Apostles (“apostolic succession”).

 Catholic bishops are celibate. Each bishop is “Christ’s Vicar” to his diocese.

 Bishops, having the "fullness of orders," may confer all seven sacraments.

 Every bishop is directly answerable to the Pope, not to other bishops.

 A bishop wears a stole and a chasuble. At certain occasions, he wears a cope. The bishop may also wear a mitre, the pectoral cross (under the chasuble), the ring and carry the crosier.

► Orthodox: Apostolic Successors

 Bishops are the successors of the Apostles (“apostolic succession”).

 Bishops are usually monks since they have to be unmarried. When this is not the case, those married must agree to abstain from contact with their wives.

 In the Greek tradition, bishops who occupy an ancient See are called Metropolitan, while the lead bishop in Greece is the Archbishop. In the Russian tradition, however, the usage of the terms "Metropolitan" and "Archbishop" is reversed.

 Patriarchs are bishops who head certain ancient autocephalous or sui juris churches, which are a collection of metropolitan sees or provinces (although outside their own dioceses they are without enforceable jurisdiction).

 The Sakkos is normally only worn when the bishop is celebrating the Divine Liturgy, or during the Great Doxology at the All-Night Vigil. At other services, he will wear the Mantya, a cape with a long train and red and white ribbons (“rivers") running along the sides. There are two types of omophoria, the "Great Omophorion" which is worn at certain moments during the Liturgy and at the Great Doxology at Vigil, and the "Little Omophorion" which is worn at other times (note that the sticharion is worn only at Liturgy, while the epimanikia and epitrachelion are always worn when vesting).

 Whenever he blesses, the bishop stands on an orletz ("eagle rug"), and sometimes uses dikirion and trikirion (candlesticks with two candles and three candles, respectively).

► Protestants: Functional and Ceremonial Office

 Protestants do not believe in apostolic succession. Some examples of exceptions are the Anglican Communion and a minor segment of the Lutheran Church (however it is not universally recognised).

 The function of bishops in Protestant churches with episcopal structures is merely functional and administrative without the sacramental character.

 There is no requirement for celibacy.

5. Supreme Governing Authority

► Catholics: Papal Office

 Catholics believe that the Apostle Peter had a role of leadership in the college of apostles, which the Pope retains today as the spiritual head of the Church.

 The Pope is seen as the Vicar of Christ (Latin: Vicarius Christi).

 He is sacramentally a bishop; but Pope by virtue of his being Bishop of Rome.

 Papal infallibility means the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error when he solemnly declares to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals (ex cathedra, Latin “from the chair”).

 Papal infallibility is a part of the Magisterium. The Pope together with all the bishops in communion with him embody the Magisterium, which is the teaching authority of the Church.

► Orthodox: Ecumenical Patriarch

 In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is the Archbishop of Constantinople, ranking as first among equals.

 He has no direct jurisdiction outside his Patriarchate. His primary function regarding the whole Orthodox Church is one of dealing with Church unity.

 The Orthodox reject the doctrine of papal infallibility. They believe that the Holy Spirit preserves the entire body of Orthodox Christians from error. But they do not specify or seek to explain how this is so.

► Protestants: Communion / Autonomy

 At the regional and international levels, Protestant denominations relate as “fellowships” rather than federations of juridical enforcements.

 Senior Pastors in “independent churches” hold almost absolute power.